Streaming sembur xxx www bokep ngentoni istri tmen

of fixing the genealogy of each dynasty at the outset, mentioning the salient features of each reign, determining the chronology of the kings, showing the importance of such of the events which had any far-reaching effect and tracing the causes that led to the rise and decline of the families. But all the same we wish to record here our reasons for holding this position.

The sources of information are given either in foot-notes or in the body of the book. The two works in question contain a romantic account of a certain Kannagi famed for chastity and of Manimegalai, the daughter of a hetaira of Kannagi's husband Kovalan. unreasonable murder of her husband, Kannagi miraculously sets fire to the city of Madura where- upon the Pandya king struck down by remorse for the unjust act kills himself.

The early history of the Pandyas, not having been attempted in full by any, is taken up next. But though the authenticity of this information may be called in question, yet as the person who supplied it was not far removed in point of time from the poets and kings, we may safely presume that popular tradi- tion, as current at the time when the poarns were written, is accurately reflected in his annotations.

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Never had its institutions, social or political, been interfered with, prior to the waves of the Muharnraadan inva- sions which took place in the 14th century and later. We have inscriptions of this sovereign in the Chingleput district and they range in date between his 3rd and 18th years 4 . 2 Madras Christian College Magazine for October 1890. The former styles himself 'Pandiyanai-churam-irakkina', (who drove the Pandya into the forest,) and the latter claims to have taken the head of Vira-Pandya. the Circars, Ceylon, Burma and a few islands in the Bay of Bengal. As has been remarked already, the dates when these poems were composed are not given anywhere. But before doing so, it is necessary to make an observation as regards the kings and bards noticed in these works.

It is to be hoped that the encouragement which this publication receives at the hands of the public will make the author persevere in the career of research which he has hitherto, so well pursued. Nature had kept it for a long time free from foreign aggressions, due mainly to its isolation and natural protection. The names Danti and Nandi occurring both among the Pal lavas and Ganga-Pallavas, and 1 Ed. Information as to how Aditya I came to have possession of the Pallava territory was not. The Tiruvalangadu grant once for all settled the question, as it stated that Aditya defeated the Pallava Aparajita and took possession of his dominion 3 . 3 Parantaka II and his son Aditya II fought with Vira- Pandya. During his reign the Chola arms were carried as far north as the Ganges and their territory included Kalingarnandalam, i.e. 93 Kadiyalur Rudrangannanar to whom may indeed be adjudged the highest place among the early Tamil poets. It is high time, therefore, to review the whole position, briefly though it be, as it is neces- sary for our present purpose to assign approximate dates to a few of them.

In collecting and publishing these contributions of his to periodicals from time to time, Mr. Though from the very nature of the contributions, they are more or less discursive, yet they deal with subjects of considerable interest to the student and are the result of an assiduous and careful study carried ou over many years mostly of epigraphic evidence which of course constitutes the most reliable basis for authentic history. THERE is a growing interest evinced in the study of the ancient history of Southern India, and the want of a book, based on the authority of trust- worthy literature as well as the results of the latest research, is keenly felt. ' When these successors of Nandivarman Palla- vamalla were holding the reins of government, there were also other princes who appear to have governed parts of the ancient Pallava dominion and claimed Pallava ancestry. a half, the last years falling somewhere about the end of the 9th century A D-, in the reign of the Chola king Aditya I, 1 She figures in twoc reords of the Gaaga-Pallava king Nripatunga at Tiruchchannampundi. The ear- liest inscription of the Cholas found in Tondaimanda- lam, i.e. The above account shows that Conjeeveram was under the sway of the Rashtrakutas from A. 945 to 970- The successors of Parantaka I, having had enough to do in putting down the Pandyas who were in a state of chronic revolt against the Chola yoke, 3 were not able to retake the city, until the time of Uttama-Chola. In the collection of Conjeeveram inscriptions noticed by Mr. Sewell in his Lists of Antiquities Volume I, pages 178 to 187, the following Vijayana- 68 ANCIENT DEKHAN. They are written in an ornate style of Tamil by contem- porary bards and record the deeds of ancient kings in whose honour they are composed and do not fail to give us a true picture of the country as seen by them, so much so that some of their faithful descri- ptions could be verified even at the present day.

Subrahmanya Aiyar has in my humble opinion done a real service to students of South Indian History. Two other inscriptions mention Maramba- vai, the queen of Pallavatilaka-Nandivarman. The period of Ganga-Pallava rule seems to have extended roughly over a century and. The large Leyden grant reports that by Aditya 'the sounding discusses of hostile kings were cast down,' hinting thereby that he was a great conqueror l . Kannaradeva who took Conjeeveram and Tanjore, ruled -the country for twenty-five years 2 . The Pallava general Perunjinga, who remained submissive to Chola rule till A. When the news of this reached the Hoysala king Vira-Narasimha who appears to have been the father-in-law of Rajaraja III, he fitted out an expedition against the rebel, defeated him in several battles, released Rajaraja and re-established him on the Chola throne and thus earned the title of the establisher of the Chola kingdom \ A similar title is also claimed by the Telugu-Chola chief Tikka who, in the Telugu work, Nirvvackaribttararamaya- namu, is said to have defeated Samburaja, Karnata- Somesa and others and established the Chola king 1 Sewell's Lists of Antiquities, Vol. 4 After he was reinstated, 1 Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1900, p. They were more than a match for the Muham- madans whom they worsted in several encounters. The student is, therefore, confronted with difficulties when he attempts to arrange the kings mentioned in these works in some chronological order because the authors did not care to leave behind them even a hint from which it may be possible to form conjectures as regards the probable period when they flourished- But the way in which these poems are written seems to indicate that the writers cared more for presenting real facts than for a display of their imaginativeness ; for truly these interesting pieces of the ancient Tamils are completely void of all poetical embellishments which we find in the later day works.

We may have to suppose that these two kings are the descendants of Dantivarman and that they stand, most probably, in the relation of father and son. Though the supposition, that all Nandis and Dantis are identical, is a good expe- dient to explain away easily the fact of the existence of their records found almost over the same area, yet the fact that there have been three different Nandis is, as shown above, beyond question. Nripatunga and her son was evidently called after her father. 53 the son and successor of Vijayalaya, the founder of the revived Chola line at Tanjore. 55 In the encounter which followed, Rajaditya while seated on the back of his elephant was killed by Butuga and he is on that account called in inscrip- tions 'Anaimerrunjinadeva' i.e. The Rashtrakuta victor Krishna III styling himself 'Kachchiyum Tanjaiyurn- konda Kannaradeva' i-e. According to it his accession to the throne took place in A. Rajaraja III being too weak to maintain the extensive Chola em- pire, allowed the Pandya king to burn Tanjore and Uraiyur and to take away a portion of his territory and distribute it among his feudatories. He grew so powerful that he even seized Rajaraja III and kept him in prison at Senda- mangalam. 2 The above facts are recorded in the Tiruvendipuram inscription published in the Epigraphia Indica, Vol. The former is no doubt identical with the Hoysala king Vira-Somesvara, the son of Narasimha II ; and the latter, we have reason to consider, was a feudatory of Rajaraja III. 580 of the Madras Epigraphical Collection for 1907. May it be that Tikka who had helped the Chola king in the earlier years had become a source of danger later on and merited the wrath of a vassal of that king V The only fact in favour of this view is the absence of Tikka's records dated later than A. 1233-4 and the mention of Sambuvaraya in Bajaraja's records dated from A. It is worthj of note that the same Pandya sovereign claims also to have defeat- ed another chief of Tondaimandalam viz. The kings of the second Vijayanagara dynasty made additions to its structural monuments and lavished some of their wealth by presents made to the city. is no doubt that these poetical works contain really trustworthy accounts of early kings of Sou- thern India and present facts as they occurred, though they never throw light as regards the time when they lived or how long they reigned.

That these two are not far removed hi point of time is shown by the fact that a chief named Vasaiyanal- lulan and his younger brother Kamban-Araiyan figure in them 3 . To say that there were three different Naudis, it will be enough to mention that the queen of one of them was Reva, of the second Marambavai and the third Sanka. Sanka was the daughter of the Kashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha i.e. Venkayya to refer to the second year after the conquest of Krishna III of Toridaimaixdalam LATEE PALLAVAS AND CHOLAS. 59 Rajaraja HI and one of his inscriptions in the Arulala-Perumal temple furnishes a Saka date coup- led with his regnal year 1 . During the time of Maravarman Sundara-Pandaya I (A. 12161235), the Pandya contemporary of Rajaraja III, strenuous efforts were made by the Pandyas to extend their dominion. Tik- ka's capture of Kanchi is borne out by a record of his in the Arulala-Perumal temple dated in Saka 1156 (A. If this were so, it is inexplicable how Tikka claims to have defeated Karnata Somesa and Samburaja. As such, they must have made common cause with each other. And in the south, the Pandyas were making vigorous attempts to extend their kingdom. Thus the Kakatiya hold on Kanchi was terminated by the Pandyas. The unsettled state of the country consequent on the Mussalman in- 1 Ind. The wave of destruction that passed over the city having subsided, it soon recovered its original state and by means of royal favour, it rose again to import- ance. Pliny observes that the Indian commodities were sold at Rome at a hundred times their original price and he computes the annual loss at upwards of eight lakhs of pounds sterling. In the absence of purely historical works in South Indian literature much importance is naturally attached to the Tamil classical works such as Purananuru, Pattuppattu Padirruppattu, the com- mentary on Iraiyanar Agapporul and the like which furnish abundant materials for constructing the political history of the ancient Dekhan, There 02 ANCIENT DEKHAN.

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Though mostly inscriptions had been our loadstar in steering through our course, the light shed by the Tamil classical works which-, as has been very often said, compare favourably with the fund of information bequeathed to the world by the Chinese travellers, was found to be of immense service. No student of Indian history can fail to profit by a perusal of the accounts given by that master of observation Hiuen Tsiang. the pre- paration of an exhaustive index to the book, which covers the last few pages, devolved on -my brother Mr. The romantic nature of the story will not fail to strike any one at the very outset.

This authority had been consulted to know the character and pursuits of the people. Crawford, the editor of the Christian College Magazine, for kindly permitting the reproduction of Books I, II and IV which originally appeared in that Journal and to the proprietor of the Modern Printing Works for the neat execution of the work. Under the circumstances it cannot be granted that it relates to contemporary events.

THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES 15-cr V HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANCIENT DEKHAN BY K. the Pallavas than has hitherto been supplied by scholars, who have written on that dynasty of kings, and to prove, by conclusive evidence, when and by whom they were dispossessed for the first time of their kingdom and the benefits which the country derived under their sway. He had a Pallava feudatory in the person of Karunakara Tondaiman who distinguished himself in the-war against Kalinga 3 - We have innumerable inscriptions in and round Conjeeveram dated in the reigns of Kulottunga I (A. 95 best regard literary evidence as second rate ; and, if it is remembered, that we are to make use of certain additional information about the kings which the bards themselves did not supply, it will be evident that we must be all the more cautious in utilising it.