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A reading of 4 ng/ml (nanograms/milliliter) or lower is considered “normal,” levels above 10 ng/ml are considered “high,” but anything in between is considered “intermediate.” Now suppose your blood work comes back with a reading of 7ng/ml. Threshold level for action These two problems share a key element.

The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”.The beginnings and ends of recessions are officially dated about 12 months after the fact.And since GDP growth as high as 2% is sometimes observed during recessions, the dating of business cycles is not simply a mindless, mechanical accounting exercise based on when GDP growth is negative.The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Committee was formed in 1978 to establish a historical chronology of business cycle turning points.In the case of a business conditions index, what reading would prompt us to call a recession?

For the PSA test, what level would cause us to schedule a biopsy rather than send the patient home?

In other words, the higher the threshold, the higher the rates of true positives and false negatives, and the lower the rates of false positives and true negatives.

But obviously the actual incidence of recession or cancer is unaffected by any diagnostic test.

A common rule of thumb declares recessions as two quarters of consecutive negative GDP growth, but this is very inaccurate.

A better option is to apply medical diagnostic evaluation methods to the business conditions indexes of the Chicago and Philadelphia Federal Reserve Banks, which suggests the recent recession ended in July or August 2009. The United States is fairly unique in that an independent group of academic economists, the National Bureau of Economic Research’s (NBER) Business Cycle Dating Committee, has been entrusted to maintain a historical chronology of business cycles.

The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its States parties.